Verzia z 08:51, 15. jún 2021, ktorú vytvoril Balogh
The first microprocessors were designed and manufactured in the 1970s. Designers predominantly used MOSFET transistors with pMOS logic in the early 1970s, and then predominantly used NMOS logic from the mid-1970s. They also experimented with various word lengths. Early on, 4-bit processors were common (e.g. Intel 4004). Later in the decade, 8-bit processors such as the MOS 6502 superseded the 4-bit chips. 16-bit processors emerged by the decade's end. Some unusual word lengths were tried, including 12-bit and 20-bit. Intel's 4004 is widely regarded as the first commercial microprocessor.
In the 1980s, 16-bit and 32-bit microprocessors were common among new designs, and CMOS technology overtook NMOS. Transistor count increased dramatically during the decade.
Key home computers which remained popular for much of the 1980s predominantly use processors developed in the 1970s. Versions of the MOS Technology 6502, first released in 1975, power the Commodore 64, Apple IIe, BBC Micro, and Atari 8-bit family. The Zilog Z80 (1976) is at the core of the ZX Spectrum.
The IBM PC launched in 1981 with an Intel 8088. It was not until Intel's 80286 (used in the 1984 IBM PC/AT), and later the 80386, that processors designed in the 1980s drove the computers of the 1980s. These chips had higher clock speeds and 32-bit memory access. The end of the decade saw the launch of the Intel 80486, the first personal computer CPU with on-chip floating point support instead of as an optional coprocessor.
A mid-1980s generation of GUI-driven home computers is based around the Motorola 68000: Macintosh (1984), Atari ST (1985), Amiga (1985), and X68000 (1987). Even the Sega Genesis game console, released in 1988-89, uses a 68000 as the main CPU and a Z80 for sound.
Nasledujúca tabuľka je prevzatá z https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microprocessor_chronology
|Date||Name||Developer|| Max clock
| Word size
|1971||4004||Intel||740 kHz||4||10 μm||1||2,250||pMOS|||
|1972||8008||Intel||500 kHz||8||10 μm||1||3,500||pMOS|
|1974||8080||Intel||2 MHz||8||6 μm||1||6,000||NMOS|
|1976||Z-80||Zilog||2.5 MHz||8||4 μm||1||8,500||NMOS|
|1977||8085||Intel||3.0 MHz||8||3 μm||1||6 500|
|1978||8086||Intel||5 MHz||16||3 μm||1||29 000|
|1979||8088||Intel||5 MHz||8/16||3 μm||1||29 000||NMOS (HMOS)|
|1979||68000||Motorola||8 MHz||16/32||3.5 μm||1||68,000||NMOS (HMOS)|||
|1982||80286||Intel||6 MHz||16||1.5 μm||134,000|
|1983||RISC-II||UC Berkeley||3 MHz||-||3 μm||40,760 (NMOS)|
|1983||MIPS||Stanford University||2 MHz||32||3 μm||25,000|
|1985||80386||Intel||16–40 MHz||32||1.5 μm||275,000|
|1987||ARM2||Acorn||8 MHz||32||2 μm||25,000|
|1989||80486||Intel||25 MHz||32||1 μm||1,180,000|
- Belzer, J., Holzman, A. G., Kent, A.: Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Technology: Volume 10 - Linear and Matrix Algebra to Microorganisms: Computer-Assisted Identification. CRC Press, 1978.
- The Intel 8088 had an 8-bit external data bus, but internally used a 16-bit architecture.
- The Motorola 68000 had a 16-bit external data bus, but internally used 32-bit registers.
- Chip Hall of Fame: Motorola MC68000 Microprocessor. IEEE Spectrum.
- Šablóna:Cite journal
- Šablóna:Cite journal